Pioneering Results in the Blueprint of U.S. K-12 Computer Science Education
A Google and Gallup partnership measures students' early exposure to computer science and identifies opportunities to influence growth in the industry.
Computer Science is imperative to our future; it develops critical thinking skills that solve complex problems, fosters creativity for bold, new ideas and sharpens skills that drive innovation in science, technology, engineering and math. As technology grows, employees in a variety of fields now require more advanced computer and programming skills for their daily functions.
What are the unique opportunities that influence whether students study computer science or pursue careers in their field? Until now, data on U.S. students' early exposure to computer science education were limited. To fill this crucial gap, Google commissioned Gallup to conduct a comprehensive research effort to better understand these factors among U.S. students.
In Year 1 (2014-2015), the new study examined perceptions about the value of computer science learning among key leaders in K-12 education. The study uncovered barriers to computer science education and evaluated access and opportunities for students to become more involved in key concepts of computer science before college. In Year 2 (2015-2016), the study covered trends in these key issues and further examined differences in access and diversity.
Explore the findings in this dynamic study for the growth of our future.
93% of parents feel that opportunities to learn CS are a good use of school resources.
"For most people on Earth, the digital revolution hasn't even started yet. Within the next 10 years, all that will change. Let's get the whole world coding!"
-Eric Schmidt, Executive Chairman, Google
Searching for Computer Science
Year 1 key findings examine student exposures to computer technology, demand for CS schools, opportunities for students to learn about CS and barriers to offering CS in schools.Full Report
Images of Computer Science
Year 1 findings explore confusion between CS activities and general computer literacy, perceptions of CS careers, stereotypes about who engages in CS and demographic profiles of CS learner students.Full Report
Trends in the State of Computer Science in U.S. K-12 schools
Year 2 findings focus on key changes from year 1 on opportunities to learn CS (awareness of and access to CS), perceptions of CS, demand for CS and challenges and opportunities for CS in K-12 schools.Full Report
Diversity Gaps in Computer Science: Exploring the Underrepresentation of Girls, Blacks and Hispanics
A focus on exposure to technology and access to CS learning opportunities across underrepresented groups to identify structural and social barriers faced that could influence a likelihood to enter the CS field.
Computer Science Learning: Closing the Gap-Girls
Women make up half the U.S. college-educated workforce, yet only 25% of computing professionals. This summary highlights the state of CS education for girls during 2015-16.
Computer Science Learning: Closing the Gap-Black Students
This summary highlights the state of CS education for Black students during 2015-16, a group less likely to take the AP Computer Science Exam and with a lower pass rate on it compared to other racial groups.
Computer Science Learning: Closing the Gap-Hispanic Students
This summary highlights the state of CS education for Hispanic students during 2015-16, who make up nearly one-quarter of the U.S. K-12 student population.
Computer Science Learning: Closing the Gap-Rural and Small-Town School Districts
This summary highlights the state of K-12 CS experiences of rural/small-town students in the U.S. and provides specific recommendations for schools in rural and small-town communities.
Encouraging Students Toward Computer Science Learning
This summary highlights key differences in interest in and confidence to learn CS among seventh- to 12th-grade students from underrepresented groups, as well as the level of encouragement to learn CS that these groups receive from key influencers such as parents and teachers.
The study produced individual summary reports on principals inputs' for 43 states with sufficient principal responses from the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 Google-Gallup surveys of 18,938 school principals. The results shed light on the status of offerings and support of computer science in the U.S. K-12 schools in those states, as well as recommendations to broaden access to and participation in CS learning.
These reports present findings from the first two years of Gallup and Google's multi-year, comprehensive research effort to better understand perceptions of CS and access to CS learning opportunities in K-12 schools in the U.S. In Year 1, Gallup surveyed more than 15,000 seventh- to 12th-grade students and parents of seventh- to 12th-grade students via telephone, and K-12 teachers, principals and superintendents via Web surveys.
In Year 2, Gallup used a similar methodology and surveyed more than 16,000 seventh- to 12th-grade students, parents of seventh- to 12th-grade students, and K-12 teachers, principals and superintendents.
Detail on Year 1
- Gallup interviewed nationally representative samples of 1,673 seventh- to 12th-grade students, 1,685 parents of seventh- to 12th-grade students and 1,013 first- to 12th-grade teachers via telephone in November and December 2014.
- Gallup also surveyed a sample of 9,693 K-12 principals and 1,865 school district superintendents in the U.S. via the Web. These groups are not representative of all principals and superintendents in the U.S., and data in the Year 1 reports, including state-level reports, were not weighted.
Detail on Year 2
- Gallup interviewed nationally representative samples of 1,672 seventh- to 12th-grade students, 1,677 parents of seventh- to 12th-grade students and 1,008 first- to 12th-grade teachers via telephone in December 2014 and January 2015.
- Gallup also surveyed representative samples of 9,805 K-12 principals and 2,307 school district superintendents in the U.S. via the Web. While results for principals and superintendents in Year 1 were not weighted when Year 1 reports were written, those data were weighted for comparison with weighted Year 2 data in Year 2 reports.
- Full detail on methodology can be found at the end of each report.